Running docker inside an unprivileged LXC container on Proxmox

Published: 2021-03-25, Revised: 2023-07-19

TL;DR This is a brief description of the setup process for running docker in unprivileged LXC containers on proxmox. There are two primary sources, one is a post on Reddit1 and a more general discussion2 on


Docker containers can be useful, even though Proxmox LXC containers offer the same set of functions.

For example, I prefer Docker over LXC, where official pre-defined docker-compose.ymls exist and are suggested in documentations.

However, there is some confusion about running Docker inside Proxmox.

Several sources suggest that Docker can only be run inside a full VM, or a privileged LXC container, with full access to the host system.

Usually, this will be the wrong approach.

Full VMs in Proxmox consume reserved system resources such as CPU, Memory etc. They will also kill your SSDs on ZFS way faster, due to significant write overhead. An unprivileged LXC container, however, will share available resources with all other containers on the host.

This means, if the total available Memory on the Hypervisor is 32 GB, it is entirely possible to create several LXC containers and make 32 GB of memory available to each of them. The total available memory will be shared.

When to not use Docker in unprivileged LXC

Full VMs are officially recommended for Docker, over running inside unprivileged containers. One of the main reasons is that VMs are fully virtualized, whereas LXC containers simply run all processes using the host (the hypervisor). Unprivileged containers use a combination of app-armor rules and uid-mapping to prevent any malicious access to the host, but if you are doing serious production work or you know that your Docker tools may be insecure, use a VM instead of LXC.

Docker on native LXC?

If you came here, looking for a way to get Docker to run on native LXC (without Proxmox), this guide will not work. See a blog post that describes the major differences here. 8

This guide has been verified to work with Proxmox 5.4 to 8.0.3, for both Ubuntu 22.04 and Debian 12 LXC Templates. If you are using a different setup, YMMV.

Prepare Proxmox#

On Proxmox, the overlay and aufs* Kernel modules must be enabled to support Docker-LXC-Nesting.

echo -e "overlay\naufs" >> /etc/modules-load.d/modules.conf

Reboot Proxmox and verify that the modules are active:

lsmod | grep -E 'overlay|aufs'

* Note

Starting with Proxmox 7, the aufs module seems deprecated and is not needed anymore. It will not be loaded, even if it is added to modules.conf 7

Create an unprivileged LXC container#

Follow the Proxmox docs to create an unprivileged LXC container, either through the web UI or using the shell.

Example LXC settings
  • Download Debian 11 Bullseye CT Template
  • Create new Directory Storage storagedocker
  • Create unprivileged LXC container:
    • hostname: docker
    • CT ID: 100
    • add ssh public key
    • Root Disk: storagedocker
    • Disk Size: 60 GB
    • CPU: 2
    • Memory: 4096
    • Network:
      • vmbr1 (Service Network)
      • IPv4/CIDR:
      • Gateway:
      • VLAN tag 40
    • DNS:
      • Domain
      • DNS:

This LXC container config will be stored at:


Open this config and add:

features: keyctl=1,nesting=1

Alternatively, use the Proxmox gui to enable these options.

Afterwards, the 100.conf will look similar to this:

arch: amd64
cores: 2
features: keyctl=1,nesting=1
hostname: docker
memory: 4096
net0: name=eth0,bridge=vmbr1,firewall=1,gw=,ip=,tag=40,type=veth
ostype: debian
rootfs: storagedocker:100/vm-100-disk-0.raw,size=60G
startup: order=1
swap: 4096
unprivileged: 1

Setup Docker in LXC#

Now, login to the newly created LXC container via ssh.

Optionally install sudo:

apt install sudo

Set time zone. In unprivileged containers, use:

dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

Update all packages:

apt-get update && apt-get upgrade && apt-get dist-upgrade && apt-get autoremove

Install Docker. This is from the docs for Debian.

sudo apt-get install \
    ca-certificates \
    curl \
    gnupg \
curl -fsSL | sudo gpg --dearmor -o /usr/share/keyrings/docker-archive-keyring.gpg
echo \
  "deb [arch=$(dpkg --print-architecture) signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/docker-archive-keyring.gpg] \
  $(lsb_release -cs) stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker.list > /dev/null
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install docker-ce docker-ce-cli


Always check the official instructions from the docs, for outdated code, before copy & paste.

Change the storage driver to overlay2.

echo -e '{\n  "storage-driver": "overlay2"\n}' >> /etc/docker/daemon.json
Adjust Docker subnets

Keep an eye open if you have subnets in the range. This range is among the list of subnets that docker may select for the default_network. See issue #37823.

It is possible to remove from this list, by updating daemon.json, e.g.:

    "storage-driver": "overlay2",
    "bip": "",

Optionally install docker-compose. Follow the docs.

Test Docker#

Restart the LXC container and test Docker setup.

systemctl status docker
docker run hello-world

Hello from Docker!



For ZFS, a few additional steps are required to get Docker running inside unprivileged LXCs.

Docker requires root privileges to use ZFS. Since we are running Docker inside an unprivileged LXC, file-system permissions are missing for Docker in /var/lib/docker.

There are two workarounds.

The first is to create a ZFS volume formatted as ext4 or xfs, and changing ownership to the unprivileged root user, which I am showing below. This approach was first described in a post on Reddit4. See also this Ansible playbook.

Second option: fuse-overlayfs5

This requires adding FUSE as advanced feature in the LXC and mounting /dev/fuse to the container. If you want to follow this road, have a look at this guide.6

I decided against fuse-overlayfs, since I am not familiar with this file system and there are possible issues with performance and reliability.

This is not meant as any final recommendation, things change rather fast. Have a look at the comments section, with positive reports for the fuse-fs approach.

There is also an ongoing discussion 9 on Github with a good summary and comparison of the different approaches. It looks like that native ZFS in Docker in unprivileged LXC may soon become reality with the availability of ZFS 2.2.0 in Proxmox.

Prepare replacing /var/lib/docker with a ZFS volume mount

In the container:

service docker stop
cp -au /var/lib/docker /var/lib/docker.bk
rm -rf /var/lib/docker/*

Shutdown the LXC.

On Proxmox, I am assuming ZFS is already set up. Check available mounts and zfs datasets:

zfs mount
zpool status -v
zfs list

The command below will create a new ZFS volume stored in tank_ssd/lxc/docker.

zfs create -s -V 8G tank_ssd/lxc/docker
zfs get volsize,referenced tank_ssd/lxc/docker
> NAME                 PROPERTY    VALUE     SOURCE
> tank_ssd/lxc/docker  volsize     8G        local
> tank_ssd/lxc/docker  referenced  88K       -

ZFS volumes are comparable to partitions and can be formatted with any file system. I prefer to use XFS over ext4, but both will work.

Format as xfs:

mkfs.xfs /dev/zvol/tank_ssd/lxc/docker

In order for Docker to be able to write to this volume, you either need to provide uid-mappings, or change the ownership to the unprivileged root user (uid 100000).

The latter can be done by mounting the volume into a temporary location (on Proxmox) and changing permissions:

mkdir /tmp/zvol_tmp
mount /dev/zvol/tank_ssd/lxc/docker /tmp/zvol_tmp
chown -R 100000:100000 /tmp/zvol_tmp
df -Th /dev/zvol/tank_ssd/lxc/docker
> Filesystem     Type  Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> /dev/zd64      xfs   8.0G   90M  8.0G   2% /tmp/zvol_tmp


Even though this ZFS volume is formatted as XFS, all ZFS features are still available, such as snapshots, encryption, compression, or sparse provisioning (meaning that the volume will only occupy the space that is actually used).


umount /tmp/zvol_tmp

Add the mount point to your unprivileged LXC config.

nano /etc/pve/lxc/100.conf
mp0: /dev/zvol/tank_ssd/lxc/docker,mp=/var/lib/docker

Start the LXC and check the Docker service inside the container:

systemctl status docker
> ‚óŹ docker.service - Docker Application Container Engine
>      Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/docker.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
>      Active: active (running) since Sun 2022-01-02 10:14:39 CET; 30s ago

You will notice a warning in the Docker logs:

Not using native diff for overlay2, this may cause degraded performance for building images: running in a user namespace

This is only relevant if you are building lots of Docker images (e.g. a Gitlab Runner). In this case, use a native VM if you need the performance.

You will see similar warning on the Proxmox host.

dmesg -wHT
[Sun Mar  6 14:14:46 2022] overlayfs: upper fs does not support RENAME_WHITEOUT.
[Sun Mar  6 14:14:46 2022] overlayfs: upper fs missing required features.
[Sun Mar  6 14:14:47 2022] overlayfs: fs on '/var/lib/docker/check-overlayfs-support065203116/lower2' does not support file handles, falling back to xino=off.
[Sun Mar  6 14:17:12 2022] overlayfs: fs on '/var/lib/docker/overlay2/check-overlayfs-support656562844/lower2' does not support file handles, falling back to xino=off.

I haven't seen any negative consequences, even for more complex Docker images such as Gitlab or mailcow-dockerized.

In the container, check the storage driver that is used.

docker info | grep -A 7 "Storage Driver:"
> Storage Driver: overlay2
>  Backing Filesystem: xfs
>  Supports d_type: true
>  Native Overlay Diff: false
>  userxattr: true
> Logging Driver: json-file
> Cgroup Driver: systemd
> Cgroup Version: 2


Now, what is neat about this setup is that it is entirely possible to have several LXC containers that run separate Docker systems.

For example, I use the above Docker LXC for hosting stable services in the local service network VLAN.

In another LXC container, I have Docker setup for experimental containers, with quick access to docker system prune --all && docker volume prune.

The performance of this Docker-LXC-nesting is negligible, since all resources are shared and running Docker containers do not consume resources, if they are not active.



Having /var/lib/docker in a separate mount point (for LXC+ZFS) will exclude all docker containers from the native Proxmox backup.

Of course, Proxmox Backups can be avoided with ZFS Snapshots. However, for archiving purposes, I prefer having tar.zst files of all LXC containers.

A solution here is to move all persistent data to the LXC, so that anything in /var/lib/docker (e.g. containers, volumes) does not need to be backed up.

There is a system for setting up Docker containers I have followed since seeing it in the Funkwhale-docs.

Based on this system, the example below will go a bit beyond what it absolutely needed, but I have seen too many bad Docker container setups.

Example docker setup: Miniflux

The Funkwhale Docker Setup is based on the idea that for each service, a specific user (with matching name) is created and added to the docker group.

In the example here, this is applied to Miniflux, a great feedreader.

Have a look at the Docker Compose setup of Miniflux.

Create a user with the name miniflux, and a home folder with the same name in /srv/, and add it to the docker group.

mkdir /srv/
sudo useradd -r -s /sbin/nologin -m -d /srv/miniflux -U -G docker miniflux

Login as the user.

sudo -u miniflux -H bash
cd /srv/miniflux

Create two folders, one for the persistent data and one for the docker configuration:

mkdir -p data/miniflux-db
mkdir docker
cd docker
nano docker-compose.yml

Use the official example docker-compose.yml for Miniflux, but change the volume (miniflux-db) to a mount point for the Postgres database (/srv/miniflux/data/miniflux-db).

Example docker-compose.yml
version: '3'

    image: miniflux/miniflux:latest
    restart: unless-stopped
    - ""
        condition: service_healthy
    - miniflux
    - DATABASE_URL=postgres://${DB_USER:-miniflux}:${DB_SECRET:-eX4mP13p455w0Rd}@db/miniflux?sslmode=disable
    - BASE_URL=
    image: postgres:13
    restart: unless-stopped
    - POSTGRES_USER=${DB_USER:-miniflux}
    - /srv/miniflux/data/miniflux-db:/var/lib/postgresql/data
    - miniflux
    test: ["CMD", "pg_isready", "-U", "${DB_USER:-miniflux}"]
    interval: 10s
    start_period: 30s

    name: ${NETWORK_NAME:-miniflux-network}

You see that I removed the volume part:


Startup the docker:

cd ~/docker
docker-compose up -d && docker-compose logs --follow --tail 100

Now, there is no need to backup /var/lib/docker using this setup, since all persistent data is stored in /srv/miniflux/data. The docker volume mount only contains base OS images, which do not need to be backed up.

A benefit of this setup is that you have everything together to restore individual services. The directory /srv/miniflux/data will be backed up with the standard Proxmox LXC backup to tar.zst and can be started with the corresponding docker-compose.yml, even if the docker system (/var/lib/docker) has been cleaned or pruned. In this case, docker will automatically pull missing images and startup the service with the persistent data from /srv/miniflux/data.


Special care and possibly manual work is necessary in case of Docker+ZFS for migrations ( e.g. between nodes, clusters etc.). Since I am running a single node Proxmox Cluster, I have no information to provide here. Please add your experiences in the comments.

Special container permissions#

Except for one case (see below), I did not have any issues with this setup for over a year now, running several unprivileged LXC containers with individual docker hosts alongside.

Gitlab Docker: open /proc/sys/kernel/domainname: permission denied

Keep an eye out for Docker setups that require access to special system resources. The only time this happened to me was with the Gitlab docker, and it was easy to solve.3

Gitlab tried to modify the sysctl domainname, which is not allowed in unprivileged LXC containers. Removing hostname from the docker-compose.yml solved this issue.



  • Confirm Proxmox 8.0 and ZFS 2.1.12 compatibility


  • Confirm Proxmox 7.3 and ZFS 2.1.6-pve1 compatibility


  • Confirm Proxmox 7.2 compatibility


  • Add note for deprecated aufs kernel module
  • Add note for migrations


  • Add instructions for ZFS
  • Test with Debian, Ubuntu
  • Update instructions for Proxmox 7.1
  • Update reference to fuse-overlayfs
  • add example docker setup for Miniflux

2021-03-25 Initial post

  1. The core of this content appeared in a post on reddit, April 19, 2020. 

  2. Setup of chore comes from a general discussion on 

  3. Gitlab domainname issue on unprivileged LXC #743#issuecomment-860164507 

  4. Docker in unprivileged LXC using a formatted ZFS subvolume r/Proxmox 

  5. fuse-overlayfs 

  6. How to setup Docker with fuse-overlayfs in Proxmox LXC container 

  7. Deprecated aufs module Proxmox Forums 

  8. Docker on native LXC Blog 

  9. Discussion on issues with rootless Docker on native ZFS